Tech Talk – July 2014

TEC-sponsor

Summertime exterior installations from start to finish

tom_plaskota_webBy Tom Plaskota, Technical Support Manager, H.B. Fuller Construction Products

The arrival of summer often inspires (or requires) homeowners and building owners to beautify their outdoor spaces. A new tile installation can freshen up a pool area, breathe life into a patio or update a building’s façade. While the summer sunshine sparks imaginations, turning your clients’ exterior visions into reality requires special expertise.

Whether remodeling an existing exterior tile installation or starting from scratch, substrate preparation is key. Concrete is the ideal substrate for exterior floor installations, while other firm substrates, including backer board or concrete block walls, can be used for wall installations. When setting tile on existing concrete, make sure you address any liquid-membrane curing compound residues. These products can prevent proper bonding of mortar to the concrete surface, so should be removed through scarification or covered with an appropriate primer.

Laitance – a thin layer of hardened, yet weak, cement – can also affect the substrate’s bonding potential. If laitance exists, the concrete’s surface layer may appear strong and stable, but actually risks causing bond failure. Laitance can be identified by scraping the concrete with a razor or knife. If the concrete scratches or powders, laitance may exist. Formal testing can then be undertaken by measuring the tensile strength of the concrete surface with specialized equipment. The remedy for a weak layer of laitance is removal, which is often done by sandblasting.

1-TT-0714Prepare substrate for a solid foundation

After these preliminary steps, any variation in the substrate should be corrected. Use an appropriate patching compound to flatten the substrate surface. Exterior floors, decks or patios should be sloped to allow for drainage. Concrete on grade should also have a gravel bed or other means of drainage below the slab. Drainage is particularly important for installations subject to freeze/thaw cycling, snow and ice accumulation and/or where snow melting chemicals are used as these conditions can cause degradation over time.

Exterior installations may be subject to changes in temperature and humidity level. This cycle can put mechanical stress on the substrate – which can cause cracking. Waterproofing and crack isolation membranes can help isolate substrate cracks and keep in-plane cracks in the subfloor from telegraphing to the tile. Their waterproofing characteristics can also prevent moisture changes from affecting the substrate.

Combining the right tile with a carefully-prepared substrate helps make exterior installations last. For outdoor floor installations, unglazed tile with its nonslip characteristics is often ideal. All tile used in exterior application should have low porosity. According to industry standards, tile with a porosity of greater than 5% should never be used in exterior applications.

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Be mindful of moisture

When your substrate is prepared, your tile is selected, and you’re ready to begin tiling, make sure the installation won’t suffer from excessive porosity in the substrate. Before you begin mortaring, splash water on the concrete. If the water disappears in a few seconds, the substrate is very porous. One way to remedy this problem is to dampen the substrate and allow the surface to dry. Mortar should be applied after the surface dries, but before the moisture below the surface is lost. This will prevent the transfer of moisture from the mortar and result in a proper cure and well-bonded tile. A primer may also minimize the pull of moisture from the mortar into the substrate, ensuring proper curing and bonding.

Moisture can be lost to the atmosphere when the installation is conducted or allowed to cure in direct sunlight on hot, dry days. Excessive heat can prevent fresh mortar from curing properly and developing the necessary strength for long-term installation. On hot days, shield the installation from direct sunlight by tenting. Also, avoid storing unused mortar in direct sunlight.

3-TT-0714Create consistent coverage

To make all of these precautions worthwhile and keep your installation from slumping, sagging or slipping, be sure to achieve proper coverage with a polymer-modified thin-set mortar appropriate for exterior installations. Outdoor installations require 95% coverage – and this requirement increases to 100% with natural stone. Substrate variation, bonding material, trowel selection, and troweling technique are critical factors to consider when trying to achieve proper coverage.

For outdoor environments, use a polymer-modified grout with low water absorption. Consider the use of a grout additive, which can help provide a grout that is stronger, denser, more resistant to water penetration and more flexible. Sealants and caulks can also prevent external elements from penetrating your installation – without changing its appearance.

When working on exterior installations in the hot summer months, you and your crew should take proper precautions not only with the installation, but also with your own health and safety. Make sure you stay hydrated and take breaks as needed. With a healthy crew, a properly-prepared substrate, carefully-selected products and the right installation techniques, you’ll help your clients achieve the outdoor spaces they imagine.

The TEC® brand is offered by H.B. Fuller Construction Products Inc. – a leading provider of technologically advanced construction materials and solutions to the commercial, industrial and residential construction industry. Headquartered in Aurora, Illinois, the company’s recognized and trusted brands – TEC®, CHAPCO®, Grout Boost®, Foster®, AIM™ and others – are available through an extensive network of distributors and dealers, as well as home improvement retailers. For more information, visit www.hbfuller-cp.com.

Tech Talk – June 2014

TEC-sponsorANSI requirements for porcelain tile shears are too low

NTCA Recognized Consultant recommends minimum of  300 psi shear rating

1-TT_0614By Tom D. Lynch, CSI

Nearly every ceramic tile floor installation failure that I inspect involves porcelain tile. Perhaps that is due to the popularity of these types of tiles, but a very disturbing trend has emerged that I think warrants discussion. In more cases than not, adequate mortar coverage has been achieved by installers, yet tiles shear off in alarming numbers from the lateral stress that has been applied. Tiles do not let loose from substrates without some sort of stress being applied, usually in the form of a crack appearing somewhere, but I think the extent of these failures can be reduced dramatically.

We all agree that it takes a polymer-modified mortar to hold porcelain tiles in place. The mechanical bond achieved with non-modified mortars is just not enough. The adhesive bond that polymers provide must be added. With this in mind, ANSI insists that a minimum A118.4 porcelain tile shear of 200 pounds per square inch (psi) with a polymer-modified mortar must be obtained for installations of impervious porcelain tile. Do you realize that a good high-quality, non-modified mortar will achieve close to 195 psi on a porcelain shear test? Add about a thimble full of polymer and these mortars could easily hit 200 psi. NOT ENOUGH, I say. For the betterment of the industry, porcelain tile minimum shears must be increased.

2-TT-0614Let me give you another reason why they must be increased. The A118.4 porcelain tile shear test is performed by bonding 2” x 2” porcelain tiles together with a 1/8” offset. After curing, the tiles are sheared by applying lateral pressure and measuring the amount of pounds per square inch that it takes for failure to occur. It must be noted that the coverage of the bonding mortar is basically 100%, yet ANSI A108.5 paragraph 3.3.2 allows only 80% coverage for interior installations of tile (other than wet areas where 95% is required).

In essence, 80% coverage of a 200 psi mortar will only accomplish 160 psi of strength, which is 40 psi short of the minimum requirements for porcelain tiles. At the 95% allowable coverage for interior wet areas and all exterior installations, only 190 psi is obtained. Raising the minimum requirements for the A118.4 porcelain shear is a must, but how much is enough?

Engineering cement/polymer chemistry for thin-set mortars is not as simple as baking a cake. There is a fine point where adding too much volume of polymers with high-flex qualities will greatly increase the adhesive bond but unfortunately will reduce shear strengths. What we do not want is a thin-set modified polymer that will bond to nearly any substrate but cannot hit minimum shear strengths.

3-TT-0614Shoot for 300 psi minimum shear rating

In my opinion, the key is to engineer a polymer modified thin-set that will obtain at least a 300 psi shear rating for porcelain tile. I chose this number for a couple of reasons. First, it greatly increases the current requirement and allows for 240 psi at 80% coverage and secondly it coincides nicely with the newer ANSI A118.15 specification that calls for a minimum 400 psi porcelain shear for many applications.

Porcelain shears of 500-600 psi and more are not unheard of in the industry, but at some point costs must be considered along with performance. I know that many people will complain that the additional cost of a higher-performing A118.4 or an A118.15 mortar for porcelain tiles will be too inflationary, but I say “no way!” Porcelain tiles will likely continue to dominate the industry as the floor tiles of choice, but it is in all of our best interests to lower the number and the extent of porcelain tile failures. A few cents per square foot of additional costs to insist on a better-performing mortar should not be a deal breaker on any project.

By the way, I do not advocate increasing the ANSI A108.5 coverage minimums. Tile installers are, after all, human and insisting on 100% coverage is totally unrealistic.

 

Tom D. Lynch is an experienced and accomplished technical consultant to the ceramic and stone tile industry. Honored to be one of the first Recognized Industry Consultants by the NTCA, Lynch now has 52 years of experience to draw from. He can be reached at 181 Sunnyside Park Road, Jefferson, NC 28640 or by phone at 336-877-6951. Website is www.tomlynchconsultant.com. Email at: [email protected]

Tech Talk – Why movement joints and sealants must be installed in tile and stone installations

TEC-sponsorCurrent industry standards and design options

514-pompoBy Donato Pompo, CTC, CSI, CDT, MBA, Ceramic Tile and Stone Consultants (CTaSC); University of Ceramic Tile and Stone (UofCTS)

Many end users don’t want movement joints because they think they are distractive and ruin the appearance of their tile installation. So why should tile installers make sure that movement joints are installed in all of their tile installations?

The short answer is because industry standards say that all tile installations must have movement joints. If you don’t install movement joints, and there is some problem with the tile installation, then the fingers will be pointing your way and you will be held responsible even if the problem isn’t directly related to the lack of movement joints. Lack of movement joints can be a contributing factor to many different types of tile failures, so it’s not worth the risk to exclude them from your installations.

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Cracked grout due to missing transition movement joint.

All tile and stone assemblies move in one way or another, whether due to thermal movement, moisture movement, shrinkage, freezing, or dynamic structural movements. To ensure a long-lasting installation, it’s important for architects to specify and provide the requirements for movement-joint design and placement, and to specify the correct type of sealant (caulking) for filling those joints. When there isn’t an architect – and the tile installer is determining how to install the tile – then it becomes the tile installer’s responsibility to specify and install the movement joints or to find someone else to specify them.

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Tented glazed tile floor

“Movement joint” is a general term used for all types of joints seen in construction materials that control and allow movement. Most commonly we refer to these joints as either “expansion joints” or “control joints,” but there are various categories of movement joints. Generally they contain an appropriate pliable sealant for the intended application that is often referred to as a soft joint. Movement joints allow for the material in which they are placed to move without restraint, and they control where the movement manifests, avoiding random cracking in finish materials. An example would be the joints or separations in a concrete sidewalk. If there were no movement joints in the concrete sidewalk, then it would crack at some random point as it is subjected to shrinkage (contraction) as it cures, or subjected to expansion when it is exposed to moisture or heat, and then contraction again as it dries and cools.

514-tt-3I have seen tile floors without adequate movement joints where a portion of the floor was literally tented (debonded and raised) several inches off its substrate during the heat of the day, but laid flat at night when it cooled down. To see how small horizontal movements can result in exponentially larger vertical movements, take a 48’ (1219 mm) metal ruler and lay it on a horizontal surface. Restrain one end of the ruler and move the other end toward the center 1/8” (3.2 mm), and you will see a 2” (51 mm) rise at the apex of the ruler. In effect, this is what happens to tile floors when they tent. They are constrained at their perimeters with no movement relief and the tile expands.

514-tt-4Guidelines for movement joints

The Tile Council of North America (TCNA) provides general movement joint guidelines for tile and stone applications in its TCNA Handbook for Ceramic, Glass, and Stone Tile Installation. The guidelines are listed under EJ171 Movement Joint Guidelines for Ceramic, Glass, and Stone section. When there isn’t an architect on the job then the tile installer should refer to these standards to determine where to install movement joints. If there is an architect and they haven’t specified movement joints, then the tile installer should submit an RFI (request for information) to ask for the movement-joint layout and design.

The general rule is that movement joints should be placed at the perimeters of tile installations and at all transitions of planes or transitions to different materials, as well as within the field of tile. Inside and outside vertical joints on framed walls should have movement joints and should not be hard-grouted. Bathtub or shower receptor to wall transitions should have a movement joint. In wet areas, movement joints are important not only to control movement, but they act as a water-stop at those transitions, providing another layer of protection against potentially costly water damages.

TCNA EJ171 states that movement joints for interior applications should be placed at least every 20’ to 25’ in each direction unless the tile work is exposed to direct sunlight or moisture. In that case, movement joints should be placed at least every 8’ to 12’ in each direction – the same for exterior applications.

EJ171 states that all underlying movement joints in the substrate need to continue through the tile assembly. This means that in addition to honoring the substrate movement joints, the tile assembly needs additional movement joints within its assembly. If there is a mortar bed over the substrate, then the movement joint has to be continuous through it to the tile surface, which is considered an expansion joint. If the tile is being bonded directly to the substrate, and there is no substrate movement joint continuing up from beneath, then it is called a generic movement joint. The generic movement joints are often the same width as the grout joints if they were designed to work at that width. The movement joint widths within the tile work should never be narrower than the substrate joint on which it is placed.

Membrane cautions

Some manufacturers of ANSI A118.12 crack-isolation membranes allow their membrane to cover non-structural movement joints (joints that only move horizontally, but without any vertical displacement) such as saw-cut or cold-control joints, even though TCNA does not recommend it. Structural expansion joints can never be covered with membranes, since the vertical displacement cannot be mitigated with a crack-isolation membrane. Crack-isolation membrane manufacturers require that movement joints are installed within the tile assembly installed over their membrane. Some manufacturers allow the movement joints to not line up exactly over the substrate control joints. Each manufacturer of crack-isolation membranes may have different recommendations and limitations, so it is always important to follow manufacturers’ instructions.

TCNA F125-Partial and F125-Full Crack Isolation Membrane details provide guidelines for isolating non-structural cracks with an ANSI A118.12 crack-isolation membrane. This detail recommends that a movement joint be placed at one or both ends of the tile, parallel to the crack which is bridging the underlying shrinkage crack or non-structural control joint, as recommended by the membrane manufacturer.

Sealants for soft joints

The type of sealant (caulking) used to fill movement joints is critical to the success of the tile installation. TCNA EJ171 states that an appropriate ASTM C920 sealant must be used to fill movement joints of all types. An ASTM C920 sealant includes high-quality silicone, urethanes, and polysulfide sealants. These types of sealants are normally rated as highly weather resistant with high-elongation properties, and high-adhesion characteristics that come with 20-year commercial warranties. Too often we find installers using some type of acrylic, latex, or siliconized sealant, because they are easier to work with, but these sealants have very low performance values and basically no warranty.

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Using sealants that are not suitable for foot traffic may may be dangerous to those who wear high heels.

Different sealants have different physical properties and performance capabilities. EJ171 provides guidelines and the nomenclature for determining the appropriate Type, Grade, Class and Use sealant for the intended application. For instance, some sealants are not suitable for foot or vehicle traffic, so you must use a “Use T” sealant for those applications. A traffic sealant should have a Shore A Hardness of 35 or greater, which is critical because otherwise it would be dangerous to those who wear high heels. Some sealants can’t be used in a submerged application and some can’t be subjected to certain chemicals. Not all ASTM C920 sealants are compatible with natural stone and could cause the stone to stain. Some sealants require the surfaces to be primed after cleaning the joints and prior to installing the sealant.

Movement joint aesthetics

Movement joints are a necessary part of tile and stone installations and can even accentuate design features, rendering the joints unnoticeable, when specifiers take the time to design the movement joints into the installation.

Manufacturers of one-part silicone sealants have a broad range of colors available; custom colors are generally available to match the grout. Two-part urethane sealants can be mixed on the job by experienced sealant installers and can easily match the color of the tile grout. Movement joints placed more frequently in the installation can be narrower to match the width of the grout, also making them less noticeable. If your tile pattern has staggered joints, you can use the staggered-grout joint (referred to as a saw-tooth joints or zipper joints) as a generic movement joint to make it less noticeable. When done well, movements joints are not noticeable and can enhance the features of the installation.

Summary

All tile and stone assemblies move in one way or the other, whether due to thermal movement, moisture movement, shrinkage, freezing, or dynamic structural movement. To ensure a long-lasting installation, install movement joints and use the correct type of sealant (caulking) for filling those joints. The key to a successful tile and stone installation is to follow industry standards.

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Donato Pompo, CTC, CSI, CDT, MBA, is the founder of Ceramic Tile and Stone Consultants (CTaSC), and of the University of Ceramic Tile and Stone (UofCTS). He has more than 35 years of experience in the ceramic tile and stone industry from installation to distribution to manufacturing of installation products. Pompo provides services in forensic investigations, quality control (QC) services for products and installation methods, training programs, testing, and onsite quality control inspection services. He received the 2012 Construction Specifier magazine Article of the Year Award. Pompo can be reached at [email protected]

Tech Talk – The price of beauty: addressing challenges of glass tile

TEC-sponsorGlass tile continues to grow in popularity for both aesthetic and functional reasons. It provides an elegant, upscale look, and its composition makes it easy to clean and maintain. Because it can contain recycled glass, glass tile is also a sensible choice where sustainability is a concern.

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By Tom Plaskota, Technical Support Manager, H.B. Fuller Construction Products

However, the same attributes that benefit the end user of glass tile can also challenge its installer. For example, its imperviousness makes it ideal for wet areas like pools, showers and backsplashes, but also makes it difficult to bond. The translucence of some glass tile gives it a highly desirable appearance, but requires that the installer take extra care to create a uniform look when applying mortar and grout. To help the end user reap the benefits of glass tile, here are some proven installation strategies.

Mind the mounting

If glass mosaic tiles are specified, keep in mind that they are often pre-assembled into sheets with some type of mounting material. Before installing back-mounted mosaic glass tile in wet or submerged applications, check with the glass tile manufacturer to ensure the back mounting is suitable for wet areas. The adhesive used to bond the tiles to the mounting material may be water sensitive, resulting in bond issues in wet environments.

Mortars: bond and color

For any glass tile installation, you will need to address potential bond problems with your mortar selection. Glass tile’s lack of porosity requires the use of a latex-modified thin-set mortar, but not all modified mortars are suitable for glass tile. Some manufacturers have specific mortars designed for use with glass tiles.

With translucent tile, mortar color matters. White mortars provide a bright, consistent backing for translucent or transparent glass tile. They also minimize the effects of high alkalinity found in gray mortars that can result in glass tile discoloration and loss of bond strength.

However, the TEC® brand of setting materials offers additional aesthetic and functional options for bonding glass tile. To install glass tile, you may use TEC® AccuColor® Unsanded Grout (white cement-based colors only) mixed with XtraFlex Acrylic Mortar Additive. AccuColor® Unsanded Grout comes in a variety of white cement-based colors, which can enhance the final appearance of clear or translucent tile. Use of the mortar additive, rather than water, for mixing produces extremely high bond strengths.

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For a consistent appearance, be sure to flatten notch trowel ridges before setting translucent or transparent glass tile. Voids or gaps in the mortar can show through the tile.

Mastic is typically not recommended for glass tile. However, if the glass tile is pre-bonded to a colored backing, mastic may be the best option, because mortar can cause degradation of these backings. In dry areas, mastic is the preferred setting material for these types of tiles.

Room to move

Expansion joints also contribute to successful long-term installations of glass tile. Glass tile has a high level of expansion and contraction. Proper placement of expansion joints prevents the development of resulting stresses that disrupt the bond. For example, problems have occurred when dark glass tiles were installed on exterior walls without any expansion joints. When subjected to direct sunlight, the dark glass warmed and expanded. Without flexible expansion joints to accommodate the movement, the tile lost bond and “tented” up off the substrate. For recommendations regarding expansion joints, refer to Installation Method EJ171 in the TCNA Handbook or ANSI Specification A108.01, Sections 3.7 through 3.7.4.1.1.

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Glass tile can have specific requirements for grout to prevent surface scratching and ensure long-term performance. Check with the glass tile and grout manufacturer for compatibility.

Grout is an equally important consideration for a successful glass tile installation and requires consultation with glass tile and setting material manufacturers. Some glass tile can be susceptible to surface scratching when installed with sanded grouts and therefore requires the use of unsanded grout. Other glass tiles are compatible with sanded grouts. The same holds true of epoxy grout: some glass tile manufacturers recommend installing with it and some do not. In addition to traditional cement and epoxy grouts, some grouts, like TEC® Design FX™, are specifically formulated to be functionally compatible with and enhance the appearance of glass tile.

As you can see, there are some aspects of glass tile installations that are universal and some that vary by manufacturer, and even product line. Pre-installation communication with your suppliers and/or manufacturers is necessary to overcome these complexities, ensure successful installations and minimize callbacks.

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Some grouts, like TEC® Design FX™, are specifically formulated to be functionally compatible with and enhance the appearance of glass tile.

TEC®, AccuColor®, XtraFlex™, and Design FX™ are trademarks of H.B. Fuller Construction Products Inc. 

Tech Talk – Tile industry-recognized certification can make the difference in your business

TEC-sponsorAccept no substitutes – CTI and ACT are the only officially recognized certifications in the tile industry

I just returned from the International Surface West event in Las Vegas. It was clearly evident that all the organizations that represent the floor-covering industry are emphasizing the importance of quality installation as an essential component to the growth of their respective industries. Throughout the show floor, you could find training seminars, live demonstrations, and certification testing taking place. This is a really good thing to see.

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By Bart Bettiga, executive director, NTCA and CTEF and member of ACT Taskforce

As a leader in the tile industry, I want to point out something that I think is very important about the word CERTIFICATION. It can be used in a variety of ways, and the tile industry needs to address this word immediately, so that we understand the difference as it relates to who is qualified to do what type of work in commercial and residential installations.

There are training programs currently being offered by some organizations that are entry-level relating to installing tile. At the end of the training session, “certifications” are given that the installer has successfully completed this program. There are also proprietary manufacturer training programs and online, knowledge-based seminars that offer “certification” for completing the course.

I want to be very clear in my point here. These are great things to see happen. Anyone who is offering training and increasing knowledge for the sale or installation of tile and stone is contributing to our industry growth.

All “certifications” are not created equally

But – and this is a big but – if these programs are marketed in the incorrect way, then all the good they have done is quickly swept away. This is, in fact, dangerous for our industry.

This is why the tile industry has taken a strong stance on the word CERTIFICATION. This is why we have written clear language related to qualified labor in the TCNA Handbook and in Master Specifications. We have to differentiate the installers that are truly qualified from those who are not.

TT-1The ONLY OFFICIAL certification currently being recognized by the tile industry – in accordance with standards set out by the tile industry – are the CTEF Certified Tile Installer (CTI) certification and the Advanced Certifications for Tile Installers (ACT) Program. The language is clear. In addition to these two certifications, we recognize Department of Labor-approved apprenticeship programs as a way to qualify installers as well.

Why is tile so different and why are we so serious about this? For one thing, tile installations are often designed to be permanent, often installed in wet areas, and at times with other living space underneath the installation. It is very expensive to replace, and other products have to be moved and can be damaged when replacement has to take place.

Tile and stone comes in different sizes, shapes, and formats, is extremely challenging, and not forgiving in regard to installation. It needs to be looked at differently than other floor coverings when considering who is qualified to perform the work.

Our own industry recognized that even a rigorous certification test like the CTI exam the CTEF offers was not enough. That is why we partnered with all the leading tile industry trade associations to develop the ACT program – so that we go further into specific skills such as shower pans, mudwork, waterproofing and crack isolation, and large-format tile. We will be adding grouting applications and thin-tile installation very soon.

Invest in industry-recognized certifications: CTI and ACT

To every tile installation contractor who reads TileLetter regularly I am telling you today: contact the CTEF or your local union representatives to discuss the official, tile-industry-recognized CTI or ACT programs. If you are already a CTI, you need to make plans to become ACT-certified. You need to differentiate yourself from the competition. And you definitely need to understand the difference between these certifications and others that are being offered and rewarded out there.

I can’t think of anything more damaging in our industry than a beginning tile installer getting hired instead of a more qualified tile contractor because they have a piece of paper that says they are “certified” in a program that the tile industry doesn’t recognize. How would a consumer or builder know the difference? They wouldn’t! You need to get officially certified in a program our industry supports and recognizes, and you need to understand how to explain that to your customer.

Certification is here to stay. The specifications are starting to call for it. Our industry needs it; the quality tile contractors need it as well. Contact us immediately to discuss how we can help you set yourself apart from the competition.

[email protected]

Tech Talk – January 2014

TEC-sponsorInstalling ceramic tile, glass tile and stone in interior wet areas

Slope, weeps, and flashing are key to managing water and avoiding failures

Donato PBy Donato Pompo, CTC, CSI, CDT, MBA,
Ceramic Tile and Stone Consultants (CTaSC),
University of Ceramic Tile and Stone (UofCTS).  

Exterior decks and balconies, and interior showers and bathrooms have historically been problematic areas for the installation of ceramic tile, glass tile, stone tile and other stone products. Typically problems are due to installer error, such as not using appropriate materials for those applications, or not having clear enough specifications. In each case it is the result of not following industry standards. Exploration into the intricacies of exterior decks and balconies can be an entire article in itself, but for this story, we will focus on interior showers and bathrooms.

Industry standards are created by industry consensus groups consisting of installers, producers, and industry experts through organizations such as ANSI (American National Standards Institute), TCNA (Tile Council of North America), ASTM (America Society for Testing and Materials) or ICC (International Code Council).  These consensus group members combine their many years of experience with science to establish standards so problems and failures can be avoided and not repeated.  Thus if standards are not followed then known potential problems can’t be avoided.

As a forensic investigator for over 11 years, I have investigated many failed interior showers and bathrooms. I have found that the common denominators to tile and stone failures in these applications were the lack of proper slope, plugged weep holes, and inadequate flashing to contain or manage the water that resulted in various types of damages.

Managing water volume

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First, consider the volume of water that showers are subjected to on a daily basis. Since these areas are likely to be subjected to more water than a typical roof is subjected to annually, it is imperative that extra care and attention are spent on specifying and constructing them. This is accomplished by properly managing the water so it is controlled and safely evacuated from those areas.

Lack of adequate slope is a common problem in interior wet horizontal applications such as shower floors, shelves and seats. It is very clear in the tile and stone industry standards, as well as in the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC), and in the IRC (International Residential Code) or IBC (International Building Code) building codes, that the slope to drain, or away from the building, should be a minimum 2% slope. That calculates to 1/4” per foot (6 mm per 305 mm). UPC says the slope to drain in a shower must be a minimum of 1/4” per foot (6 mm per 305 mm), but not more than 1/2” per foot (13 mm per 305 mm).

Not only is it important for that slope to drain to be at the surface of the tile or stone, but it is critical that the minimum 1/4” per foot (6 mm per 305 mm) slope to drain is at the surface of the waterproof membrane or drain plane. Drains come in two sections. Where the drain clamps down on the waterproof membrane below the surface of the tile assembly, there are weep holes in the drain assembly, so that any water that migrates to the waterproof membrane can then evacuate into the drain through the weep holes.

Problem #1: Improper slope to the drain

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There are  three common problems that we run into. First, the waterproof membrane is not properly sloped to the drain. In a shower this can result in the tile mortar bed staying constantly damp, which creates a musky odor in the room, or it may cause a stone or tile floor to look wet. Excessive moisture might result in the stone spalling (deteriorating) and/or staining.   Sometimes we find that the waterproof membrane is flat or even negatively sloped away from the drain, or that there are low spots on the membrane surface where water collects.

Problem #2: Plugged weep holes

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The second common problem is drains with plugged weep holes.  Industry standards state that the weep holes are to be covered with pea gravel or with a plastic weep hole protector to make sure the weep holes stay open. Often this weep hole protection is left out, and mortar is placed over the weep holes, plugging them. Thus, if the waterproof membrane is properly sloped to drain, the water cannot escape into the drain. Again, this can result in the tile mortar bed staying constantly damp, which results in the musky odor in the room, a wet-looking floor or stone spalling or staining.

The term “spalling” refers to the deterioration of the surface of a stone. It is the symptom of a stone being subjected to excessive moisture over time. Spalling is typically caused by moisture migrating from the stone’s underlying substrate up through the stone to its surface where the moisture evaporates. As the moisture travels from under the stone through the cementitious materials, and through the stone itself, the moisture picks up various minerals (salts) which dissolve in the moisture. When the moisture reaches the surface of the stone it evaporates and the minerals precipitate into a solid again.  This expansion or crystallization of the mineral, referred to as efflorescence, causes the surface of stones to deteriorate to some degree.

Whether it is a shower or an exterior deck or balcony, the waterproof membrane surface must be sloped to drain or away from the building. Shower pans or receptors are supposed to have a pre-sloped mortar bed installed over the base substrate before installing the waterproof membrane. The pre-slope needs to have a minimum slope of 1/4” per foot (6 mm per 305 mm).

Problem #3: Membrane breaches3-techtalk

That brings up the third common problem that we find in showers: waterproofing or vapor retarders that are not complete or continuous. They tend to lack flashing at transition areas. Considering the potential collateral damages a defective balcony can develop, it is important to construct it like a big shower pan. Assuming that the deck has been properly pre-sloped, the waterproof membrane must continue, or be flashed, up the wall at least 3″ (76 mm) above any thresholds to prevent water from causing any potential collateral damages. All seams, penetrations and transitions must be properly waterproofed, flashed and sealed with a sealant. These are the areas that are most vulnerable to having problems, so they need to be given the extra attention to ensure they are installed correctly. The waterproof membrane should never be penetrated, unless it is unavoidable, and then the penetration has to be properly flashed and sealed with the appropriate sealants to ensure it will never leak.

Often we find that decks are sloped to their outer edge without any type of gutter or drain. The water drains over the side of the balcony and eventually results in staining along the siding, or staining and spalling the stone if there is stone siding. The latest trend is to use trench or linear drains that work very well and can be installed at the perimeters of decks or showers.

4-techtalk

So how can a tile installer make sure that showers are given the attention they need to avoid failures? It is the same old answer.  Follow industry standards and manufacturers’ directions. It doesn’t matter who is at fault when there is a problem; everyone ends up paying – either in time to defend themselves, money to fix the problem or with their reputation. So it is in everyone’s best interest to make sure that tile and stone installations are done properly. (Editor note: please visit www.tileletter.com for the full text of this story, which also addresses exterior installations).

Ceramic Tile Consultant, Donato Pompo, CTC, CSI, CDT, MBA, is the founder of Ceramic Tile and Stone Consultants (CTaSC), and of the University of Ceramic Tile and Stone (UofCTS). Donato has over 35 years of varied experience in the ceramic tile and stone industry. CTaSC provides services in Forensic Investigations, Quality Control Services for products and installation methods to include writing specifications, training programs, testing, and on-site quality control inspection services. CTaSC is a professional consulting business comprised of accomplished ceramic tile consultants, stone consultants, ceramic tile and stone installers, architects, engineers, general contractors, construction scientists and other industry specialists and experts conveniently located throughout the US and Canada. You can reach Donato by visiting the company website at www.CTaSC.com, emailing [email protected] or calling 866-669-1550.

TechTalk – December 2013

Spot-bonding to cure an uneven substrate is a no-no that even a customer can recognize

Unacceptable methods and unskilled installation set the stage for future problems

By Lesley Goddin

Sometimes the correct and incorrect ways to install tile are so clear and intuitive that even a non-tile- professional, new homeowner, realizes something is amiss, even if “reputable” builders or less-informed tile installers do not.

Such is the case of a soon-to-be- homeowner, Sean Hobbs of Oviedo, Fla., and his wife Kimberly, who elected to inform themselves about materials and installation techniques as their home was being built. Some techniques seemed questionable, and Hobbs contacted NTCA for guidance in the matter.

“It seems that the voids left by the patty technique would be undesirable and potentially weak areas should they get knocked,” the homeowner astutely observed.

“It seems that the voids left by the patty technique would be undesirable and potentially weak areas should they get knocked,” the homeowner astutely observed.

Hobbs wrote, “The tile on the vertical walls of the showers are being applied using a ‘patty’ technique. We wouldn’t have been aware of this except that the water proofi ng Hydro Guard 1 was left unfi nished on one of the showers and the tilers needed to remove the tile to correct this. Not a single one broke. Mike Holmes of Holmes on Holmes and Holmes Makes it Right on HGTV described tile coming off easily and without breaking as a sign of poor work, so from this I felt the work wasn’t being
done well.

“It seems that the voids left by the patty technique would be undesirable and potentially weak areas should they get knocked,” Hobbs astutely observed. “I thought the only technique was to apply the thinset to the walls, use the notched trowel to comb the thinset, place the tiles, and try to get as close to total surface contact with the back of the tile. Some even recommend taking off every fifth tile to confirm this by inspecting the back. Others recommend a very thin ‘back buttering’ of the tiles to be sure of this total contact.”

Hobbs is speaking the language of the skilled tile installer here! He scoured the internet for proper tech- niques, which he shared – to no avail – with his builder. He revealed, “My wife and I were told by the builder that the directions on the bag of thinset were merely ‘recommendations.’”

The builder insisted that he is following best practices and lets “’building science’ guide his build- ing materials and their installation,” Hobbs said. “As it stands now, he is accepting the tiler’s reasoning that the DUROCK® and PermaBase® walls – which the same tilers themselves installed just a few weeks ago – are a bit off and they need to use this patty technique to perfect the tile so that the look is right.” The builder main- tained that using the aforementioned proper method would not allow the installers to fine-tune their placement to achieve a good look due to the “suction” of the tiles.

Shoddy work on display

Hobbs observed that “such a small amount of thin-set patties were utilized, that tape and even screws (piercing the waterproof membrane) were used to hold the tiles up and prevent them from sliding."

Hobbs observed that “such a small amount of thin-set patties were utilized, that tape and even screws (piercing the waterproof membrane) were used to hold the tiles up and prevent them from sliding.”

Hobbs observed that “such a small amount of thin-set patties were utilized, that tape and even screws (piercing the waterproof membrane) were used to hold the tiles up and prevent them from sliding. It is my opinion that one of the reasons the builder allowed this inferior work to be performed was to get the home ‘Parade Home-ready’ since our home – with the builder’s sign prominently displayed – was to be featured for a local annual public display of new and renovated homes.”

Hobbs sought recommendations from TCNA and received information from industry consultant Dave Gobis which included ANSI tile setting standards, and two articles – one of which, “Dots, Spots, Dollops and Whatever,” appeared in the April 2013 TileLetter.

The builder’s solution to the voids under the wall tile was to pour a slurry behind the installed tiles to fill in the spaces.

The builder’s solution to the voids under the wall tile was to pour a slurry behind the installed tiles to fill in the spaces.

“While the patty work continued, the builder was searching around to find some other ‘expert’ to refute Mr. Gobis’ perspective because the builder was sure it was simply a different technique,” Hobbs added. “Most of the remediation (certainly not my first choice) was to grout all but the top tiles, remove the top tiles, pour a slurry to fill the voids while gently tapping with a rubber mallet to help the slurry settle, and call it done.

“The builder states that he has filed paperwork with his insurance company just in case there are any future problems with this tile install for our home,” Hobbs said.

In addition to the wall tile fiasco, Hobbs specified and paid extra for Ditra uncoupling membrane he’d seen recommended by Mike Holmes. Floors in his former home had cracking tiles and he wanted to eliminate this in the new place.

“What we found by dragging a long thin metal rod lightly across our floors is that there are numerous and large areas of tile floor with 12”x12”, 12”x24” and 24”x24” in a Versailles pattern that are hollow underneath,” Hobbs said. “Our builder’s response when shown and allowed to hear this was ‘it’s hard to lay tile and get it just right.’ We have ongoing issues after moving in June of 2013.”

Bringing his concerns to the NTCA, he asked, “Am I being overly concerned here? Are these appropriate issues to bring up? Should I consult a local tile professional, possibly one in good standing with the National Tile Contractors Association organization, to get a second opinion?”

NTCA responds!

Well, dear reader, I can imagine that you are thinking, “You SHOULD be concerned, Sean!” and “Good eye!” Here’s how Gerald Sloan, NTCA presenter and technical con- sultant, responded:

“I highly recommend choosing a tile contractor that is a member of the National Tile Contractors Association,” Sloan said. “Please visit our website www.tile-assn.com, then go to member locator to find a member contractor close to you.

“As a member, the tile contractor is privy to yearly updates on industry- recognized installation standards and cautions, in addition to product limitations,” Sloan said. “Another great member benefi t is technical sup- port that comes from our Technical
Committee where issues that concern tile contractors are discussed with efforts to avoid actions that have caused tile installation-related failures. A member who is active in our association is well-armed to avoid potential failures due to inappropriate installation practices. We wish all tile contractors would be a part of the NTCA, so we could eliminate all installation related failures.”

Sloan addressed the folly of incorrect spot bonding especially to correct uneven substrate conditions.

“As for your question related to spot bonding the tile to correct out- of-plane or out-of-plumb wall substrate conditions, this is high risk for a failure due to several factors,” Sloan said. “One is, as you men- tioned, impact loads. Those areas behind the tile that do not have coverage are much more likely to break if an impact condition should occur.

“Another potential problem is in a wet environment such as a shower; open pockets can harbor dampness much longer, and the body oils and dirt from your body can penetrate through the tile and grout joint – even if it has a quality sealer on it,” Sloan said. “Over time, this mate- rial may accumulate and become food for B.O.G (biological organic growth) or mold.

“The other reason we should not spot bond with common multipurpose thin-set setting materials is because they have a high rate of failure due to product shrinkage,” Sloan added. “The multipurpose thin-set products we work with most often are not designed to be built up to more than 1/4” thickness as measured after the tile has been installed – remember it’s called thinset. If it exceeds maximum allowable finished thickness, it has been proven to fail due to shrinking as it cures.”

The Tile Council of North America Handbook for Ceramic, Glass and Stone Tile Installation has a generic caution given in the note section (p. 17 in the 2013 edition) about not using medium bed mortars to true-up underlying substrates, Sloan said. Additional recommendations for mortar use are listed on page 35 of the Handbook.

The ANSI Standards, on page 88, in section 118.4.2.1 in the Definitions of Latex-Portland Cement Mortar, state: “Modified dry-set mortars are designed as direct bond adhesives and are not intended to be used in truing or leveling underlying substrates or the work of others.”

The homeowner said, “My wife and I were told by the builder that the direc- tions on the bag of thinset were merely ‘recommendations.’”

The homeowner said, “My wife and I were told by the builder that the direc- tions on the bag of thinset were merely ‘recommendations.’”

Bart Bettiga, NTCA executive director, jumped in on the discussion. “We don’t specifically have a section that addresses spot-bonding or pattycaking because, until recently, we were not aware that this practice was gaining steam,” he said. “We intend to alert our ANSI and Handbook committees that we may need to go even further to address this.

“There is a reason why patching and leveling products are made; because they are designed for these purposes,” Bettiga added. “The mortars that are manufactured to be used to direct-bond tile and stone are formulated to be spread to a certain thickness. When you deviate from this intention, you defeat the intended purpose of the products. We are not aware of any thin-set manufacturer that would recommend or warranty their products to be used in this fashion.”

Instead of using mortar to even up the substrate, Sloan said, “If the framing is out of plumb, framing should be corrected by shimming, sistering, scabbing, or total removal and replacement. Do not true up with thinset because the thicker places shrink more than the thinner places, thereby creating stresses that often cause the loss of bond to the tiles in random areas. The American National Standard Institute has a thin-set coverage requirement under A-108 which mandates wet area tile installation thin-set setting coverage to be 95% – 80% coverage for dry areas – with all edges and corners covered.”

Spot-bonded tiles came off the wall easily and intact - evidence of badly-bonded tiles.

Spot-bonded tiles came off the wall easily and intact – evidence of badly-bonded tiles.

This game of “patty-cake” played by the builder is setting the ground- work for future problems, ones that he has opted to cover by insuring the work instead of doing it right from the beginning.

Tech Talk – November 2013

TEC-sponsorKeys to successful installation of large thin tile panels

tom_plaskota_webBy Tom Plaskota, Technical Support manager, H.B. Fuller Construction Products

Large-format tile has become a popular choice for commercial floor and wall installations. Because it requires fewer grout lines, large-format tile visually expands rooms and produces a neater, modern appearance. Building owners and designers, now more than ever, are demanding these aesthetic benefits. Meanwhile, technological advances have enabled manufacturers to produce larger – and thinner – porcelain tiles, some with facial dimensions as large as 5’ (1.5 m) x 10’ (3 m). Thicknesses are reduced compared to traditional tile, ranging from 1/8” (3 mm) to 9/32” (7 mm).

These larger and thinner tiles can be challenging to handle and install. Here are some key factors to consider:

Handling – Large-format tiles often arrive in oversized crates, which require specific handling equipment. To prevent damage during forklift operation, specific fork sizes must be used. For example, to handle a crate of 3’ x 10’ tiles from the side, 44” long forks are recommended. To handle the same crate from the narrow end requires forks that are at least 84” long. Lifting multiple crates with longer forks may require forklifts with a greater lift capacity.

fig1_tectalkTools and equipment – Specialized tools and equipment are currently available for the installation of large porcelain panels. Innovative trowels with unique notch configurations can help increase the consistency of the mortar coverage on the back of the tile (See fig. 1). As with any size tile installation, full and complete coverage provides a strong bond and minimizes the likelihood of damage from impact or heavy loads.

Fig2-tectalkTo assist in the handling and setting of individual tiles, frames and handles with suction cups can be purchased or rented from tile distributors. Since mis-cuts of large panels can result in costly waste, the use of a rail cutting system is highly recommended (See fig. 2).

Installation materials – Since not all setting materials are appropriate for installing large porcelain panels, setting-material manufacturers have specific large-tile product recommendations. Whether you are installing 1/8” (3 mm) thick tiles that have a resin/mesh backing (See fig. 3) or 7/32” (5.6 mm) tiles with a porcelain bonding surface, the greater bond strength and resistance to impact of latex/polymer modified portland cement mortars are required. The “tack time” of a mortar is another consideration. When troweling mortar onto a substrate, it is important that the mortar surface remains in a wet, tacky state and doesn’t skin over before the tile is set. Tack time is especially important when troweling out the area to set a 30-plus square foot tile.

fig2-techtalk

Setting-material manufacturers must also evaluate grout requirements for reduced thickness porcelain panels. Strong durable grouts are required for these installations for two reasons:

1. Grout-joint depth is limited by the reduced thickness of the tile

2. Reduced-thickness tiles have a rectified corner edge, which may be susceptible to impact damage in some circumstances. Grouts with premium strength qualities address these conditions.

Substrate preparation – First, check with the tile manufacturer to make sure your substrate type is acceptable. For example, some large thin-tile manufacturers limit floor installations to concrete substrates. While a clean, sound substrate is critical to any tile installation, large porcelain panels have the added criteria of substrate flatness. The maximum allowable variation in the substrate for tiles with all edges shorter than 15” is 1/4” in a 10’ span. There should be no more than 1/16” variation in a 10’ span when measured from the high points on the surface. For tiles with at least one edge 15” in length, the maximum variations are 1/8” in 10’ and 1/16” in 24”. For floor installations, a self-leveling underlayment can help meet these substrate requirements.

Staffing the job properly – Having the right size crew is critical. The largest of these tiles must be handled by at least two people. Back-buttering is typically required, with the mortar being applied to the substrate and the back of the tile by two people simultaneously. To keep pace with the installation, at least one individual will be required to mix and maintain the flow of mortar. Taking this into consideration, even the smallest installations require at least a four-person crew.

Finally, there are additional recommendations that manufacturers can provide, so the best approach is to consult your tile and setting material manufacturer before you begin the installation. That way, you’ll be better prepared for the challenges you may face and have the knowledge to take on large tile installations with confidence.

The TEC® brand is offered by H.B. Fuller Construction Products Inc. – a leading provider of technologically advanced construction materials and solutions to the commercial, industrial and residential construction industry. Headquartered in Aurora, Illinois, the company’s recognized and trusted brands – TEC®, CHAPCO®, Grout Boost®, Foster®, AIM™ and others – are available through an extensive network of distributors and dealers, as well as home improvement retailers. For more information, visit www.hbfuller-cp.com. 

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